For each point, a player from the serving team initiates the serve by tossing the ball into the air and attempting to hit the ball so it passes over the net on a course such that it will land in the opposing team's court. The opposing team must use a combination of no more than three contacts with the ball to return the ball to the opponent's side of the net. The team with possession of the ball that is trying to attack the ball as described is said to be on offense.
The team on defense attempts to prevent the attacking team from directing the ball into their court: If the ball is hit around, above, or through the block, the defensive player positioned behind the blocker attempts to control the ball with a dig usually a forearm pass. After a successful dig, the team transitions to offense. The game continues in this manner, rallying back and forth, until the ball touches the court within the boundaries or until a fault is committed.
Teams switch ends of the court after every 7 points set 1 and 2 and 5 points set 3 played. When the total points are 21 adding the score of both teams there is a technical time-out. Each team may request one time-out per set. While there are no set positions, competitive players will generally have specialized defensive roles: Some competitive teams have no specializations, with the two players taking turns blocking and playing defense.
This allows them to conserve energy since the demand for energy on the sand is higher. Competitive players also tend to specialize in playing on either the right- or left-side of the court. This allows for greater consistency in receiving serve and shot selection. Left- handed players generally prefer to play on the right-side while right-handed players generally prefer to play on the left-side, as it is easier to spike a ball that has not passed across the line of one's body.
The ball may touch any part of the body except during the serve, when only the hand or arm may make contact , but must be hit, not caught or thrown. During a hit, a player may only make contact with the ball one time. When two players from the same team contact the ball simultaneously, it is counted as two hits, and either player may make the next contact.
When two players from opposing teams contact the ball simultaneously over the net, in what is known as a joust , the team whose side the ball ends up on is entitled to another three contacts. When receiving a ball from a hit that is not hard driven, the ball must be contacted "cleanly".
If a player receives the ball open-handed, the contact of each hand with the ball must be exactly simultaneous. In particular, in defensive action of a hard driven ball, the ball can be held momentarily overhand with the fingers. When employing an overhand pass hands separated, ball handled with the fingers as the second of three team touches usually with the intent of "setting" the ball, so that the other player may make a more effective attack-hit , the standard for a double contact fault is more lenient than when receiving or attacking, though still much stricter than in indoor volleyball.
The standard for a lift fault during an overhand pass is less strict than in indoor games—it is legal to allow the ball to come to rest for a small period of time.
Attack-hits using an "open-handed tip or dink" directing the ball with the fingers are illegal, as are attack-hits using an overhand pass to direct the ball on a trajectory not perpendicular to the line of the shoulders overhand passes which accidentally cross over the net are an exception. Beach volleyball players use hand signals to indicate to their partners the type of block they either intend to make if they are the designated blocker or that they want their partner to make if they are the designated defender.
Block signals are important so that both the blocker and defender know which area of the court is their responsibility to cover. Block signals may also be given during a rally while the opposing team is preparing their attack. For some teams, closed fist and open hand signals have the opposite meaning of blocking. If the partner is showing the closed fist the blocker should block "ball" and open hand means that the blocker should "pull-off" the net.
There are several basic skills competitive players need to master: Serving is the act of putting the ball into play by striking it with the hand or arm from behind the rear court boundary.
Serving can take the form of an underhand serve or an overhand serve, and examples include: For example, players may choose a top-spin serve when serving into the wind, causing the ball to drop short in front of the passer. For example, a sky ball serve is especially effective at high noon, because the sun gets into the passer's eyes and can cause the passer to become disoriented.
The pass is the first of a team's 3 allowed contacts. In indoor volleyball, passing involves two main techniques: However, the standards for hand setting are stricter on the beach. In practice, this means that players are effectively forbidden from hand setting the ball on serve receive; similarly, players seldom use an overhand passing motion as the first except on a hard driven attack or last of the three allowed team contacts. Digging is a similar skill to passing, but the term is not used to describe receiving the serve or a free ball, but rather refers to an attempt to prevent an opponent's attack hit from touching the court.
The set is the second team contact, and its purpose is to position the ball for an attack on the third hit. Similar to a pass, the ball can be set with either a forearm pass technique, known as a bump set , or an overhand pass technique, known as a hand set. If a referee determines that a double-hit has occurred, the point will be given to the other team. Excessive spin after a ball has been set is often used as an indicator of a double contact fault, but causing a ball to spin while setting is not explicitly prohibited.
After completing the contact, the setter typically turns his attention to the defense and communicates to his partner whether a blocker is up and which area of the court is open. The second contact can also be used to attack the ball, known as an "over-on-two" attack.
A beach volleyball attack can be categorized as either a spike or a shot. A spike involves hitting the ball hard with one open hand on a downward trajectory from above the top of the net. A shot is a relatively soft attack used to place a ball into an open undefended area of the court.
In beach volleyball, a block can be used to score a direct point by directing an attack by the opposing attacker back into their court, or used to channel the ball to the defender by "taking away" part of the court,  or used to slow the ball down so the defender has time to chase down the ball.
Blockers may also attempt a shot block, where instead of maximum penetration across the net, the blocker reaches with their hands as high as possible to achieve maximum height above the net. Players often decide against blocking if the opposing team's pass and set are not in a good position to produce a spike attack and instead opt to retreat and play defense.
This skill is known as peeling , dropping or pulling off the net,   and is almost exclusive to beach volleyball. The regional governing bodies are:. In the United States, USA Volleyball is the governing body for beach volleyball, as well as indoor and sitting volleyball.
Players can only participate in the Continental Tour that their national federation is a member of. In addition to prize money, Continental Tour events award players with FIVB ranking points and their national federations with National Federation ranking points. Circuito Brasileiro de Voleibol de Praia is the main national tour. It has been organized by the Brazilian Volleyball Confederation since The tour consists of the main Open Circuit  and a Challenger Circuit.
Men and women's beach volleyball has been contested in the Summer Olympics since In the —11 academic year, the National Collegiate Athletic Association NCAA began sponsoring women's beach volleyball, which it initially called "sand volleyball", as an "emerging" sport. Initially, it was sponsored only for Division II , with Division I added the following academic year. NCAA competition follows standard beach volleyball rules, with competitions involving five doubles-teams from each participating school.
Beach volleyball became a fully sanctioned NCAA championship sport in the —16 school year, following votes by leaders of all three NCAA divisions to launch a single all-divisions national championship. Instead, the winning U19 teams get a direct main draw entry into the next U21 World Championships, while the winning U21 teams get a direct main draw entry into a World Tour 4 or 5-star event of their choice. Beach volleyball is also contested at the Youth Olympic Games since In , the FIVB standardized beach volleyball uniforms, with the swimsuit becoming the required uniform both for men and women.
According to FIVB rules, female beach volleyball players have the option of playing in shorts or a one-piece swimsuit. Competitors such as Natalie Cook  and Holly McPeak  have confirmed the FIVB's claims that the uniforms are practical for a sport played on sand during the heat of summer, but British Olympian Denise Johns claimed that the regulation uniform is intended to be "sexy" and to draw attention.
During the Summer Olympic Games, a study was conducted on the camera angles during the beach volleyball games. Twenty percent of the camera angles were focused on the chest area and seventeen percent of the angles were focused on the buttock area. The study concludes that this implies the look of the players is having a greater impact on fans than their actual athleticism. Some conservative cultures have expressed moral objections to the swimsuit as a uniform.
At the South Pacific Games , rules were adjusted to require less revealing shorts and cropped sports tops. At the Asian Games , only one Muslim country fielded a team in the woman's competition, amid concerns the uniform was inappropriate. The federation spokesman said that "many of these countries have religious and cultural requirements so the uniform needed to be more flexible".
Beach volleyball culture includes the people, language, fashion, and life surrounding the sport of modern beach volleyball. With its origins in Hawaii and California, beach volleyball is strongly associated with a casual, beach-centric lifestyle. As it developed nearly in parallel with modern surfing , beach volleyball culture shares some similarities with surf culture.
The beach bum archetype is one such example. Professional beach volleyball matches often have a "party atmosphere", with loud music, announcers and dancers in between points and during time-outs.
Fashion often extends from the clothing worn during play, like the bikini or boardshorts. And much like surfers, beach volleyball players are at the mercy of the weather; patterns of play often develop based on weather conditions like sun and wind. Nudists were early adopters of the game. Records of regular games in clubs can be found as early as the s. The most common injuries in beach volleyball are knee, ankle and finger injuries.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Beach volleyball An unofficial mixed doubles match of beach volleyball. List of NCAA women's beach volleyball programs. Retrieved March 20, The Sands of Time". Archived from the original on 8 December Retrieved 3 December Archived from the original on 13 August Retrieved 1 August Retrieved March 22, Archived from the original on 19 September The Manhattan Beach Open: Walsh hasn't decided on her partner for Tokyo but says she knows she'll win gold to end her career.
Kerri Walsh Jennings turns 40 next month, and she has no intentions of slowing down. With her sights firmly on the Tokyo Olympics, this playlist will keep her inspired along the way. Collegiate beach volleyball coaches and players reflect on how much the sport has grown in a short time. Five-time Olympian Kerri Walsh Jennings has announced plans for her new beach volleyball circuit that will bring a sports and music festival to eight cities. Australia's men's beach volleyball team are the Commonwealth Games gold medallists after a win over Canada in the final.
She shared the playlist she listens to on the way to workouts. Amazon has an agreement with the AVP tour to livestream almost every match from every tournament for the next three summers on Amazon Prime Video. Beach volleyball star Kerri Walsh Jennings again injured her right shoulder, having to forfeit a bronze medal match in Poland with partner Nicole Branagh. April Ross topped former partner Kerri Walsh Jennings at the World Series of Beach Volleyball in their first head-to-head matchup since they won bronze together in Rio.
Despite performance that is often superior, why have female athletes had such a hard time getting their due in China?
The AVP says it has "a four-year agreement with practically all the players," but one key name remains on the sideline: Lorena Ochoa, the former No. The former ace player for USC has transitioned to the professional game in Europe and is doing well in league play there. A Finnish court has convicted five members of Cuba's national volleyball team of aggravated rape and sentenced four of them to five years in prison.
A fifth man was sentenced to three-plus years. Kerri Walsh Jennings says she is boycotting an event on the AVP beach volleyball tour this weekend in Chicago because of two rule experiments that weren't "meaningfully" discussed with players. Lang Ping became the first person to win volleyball gold as a coach and player as her China team rallied from a set down to beat Serbia.
Losing semifinal games and matches at the Olympics are devastating in their own right, but then the athletes must mentally prepare for bronze-medal competition. The United States men's indoor volleyball team was denied a trip to the gold-medal final as it lost a decisive fifth set to Italy in an instant classic match on Friday.
Eight-time Olympic gold medalist Usain Bolt took a zero-gravity flight over France, saying he felt like a "kid in a candy store" after spending about four minutes floating.