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In general, opposite hitters do not pass; they stand behind their teammates when the opponent is serving. This ensures that you don't lose momentum throughout your hit. The serve-receive system is the formation used by the receiving team to attempt to pass the ball to the designated setter. Men's events

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Female volleyball player standing with the ball. Female volleyball player hitting the ball. Beach Volleyball at Sunset Enjoyment Concept. Other changes were made to lighten up calls on faults for carries and double-touches, such as allowing multiple contacts by a single player "double-hits" on a team's first contact provided that they are a part of a single play on the ball.

In , the NCAA changed the minimum number of points needed to win any of the first four sets from 30 to 25 for women's volleyball men's volleyball remained at 30 for another 3 years, switching to 25 in If a fifth deciding set is reached, the minimum required score remains at In addition, the word "game" is now referred to as "set". Changes in rules have been studied and announced by the FIVB in recent years, and they have released the updated rules in Competitive teams master six basic skills: A player stands behind the inline and serves the ball, in an attempt to drive it into the opponent's court.

The main objective is to make it land inside the court; it is also desirable to set the ball's direction, speed and acceleration so that it becomes difficult for the receiver to handle it properly.

Also called reception, the pass is the attempt by a team to properly handle the opponent's serve, or any form of attack. Proper handling includes not only preventing the ball from touching the court, but also making it reach the position where the setter is standing quickly and precisely.

The skill of passing involves fundamentally two specific techniques: The set is usually the second contact that a team makes with the ball. As with passing, one may distinguish between an overhand and a bump set. Since the former allows for more control over the speed and direction of the ball, the bump is used only when the ball is so low it cannot be properly handled with fingertips, or in beach volleyball where rules regulating overhand setting are more stringent.

In the case of a set, one also speaks of a front or back set, meaning whether the ball is passed in the direction the setter is facing or behind the setter. There is also a jump set that is used when the ball is too close to the net. In this case the setter usually jumps off his or her right foot straight up to avoid going into the net. Sometimes a setter refrains from raising the ball for a teammate to perform an attack and tries to play it directly onto the opponent's court.

This movement is called a "dump". The most common dumps are to 'throw' the ball behind the setter or in front of the setter to zones 2 and 4. More experienced setters toss the ball into the deep corners or spike the ball on the second hit. The attack, also known as the spike , is usually the third contact a team makes with the ball. Ideally the contact with the ball is made at the apex of the hitter's jump.

At the moment of contact, the hitter's arm is fully extended above his or her head and slightly forward, making the highest possible contact while maintaining the ability to deliver a powerful hit. The hitter uses arm swing, wrist snap, and a rapid forward contraction of the entire body to drive the ball.

A "kill" is the slang term for an attack that is not returned by the other team thus resulting in a point. Blocking refers to the actions taken by players standing at the net to stop or alter an opponent's attack.

A block that is aimed at completely stopping an attack, thus making the ball remain in the opponent's court, is called offensive. A well-executed offensive block is performed by jumping and reaching to penetrate with one's arms and hands over the net and into the opponent's area.

The jump should be timed so as to intercept the ball's trajectory prior to it crossing over the net. Palms are held deflected downward roughly 45—60 degrees toward the interior of the opponents court. A "roof" is a spectacular offensive block that redirects the power and speed of the attack straight down to the attacker's floor, as if the attacker hit the ball into the underside of a peaked house roof. By contrast, it is called a defensive, or "soft" block if the goal is to control and deflect the hard-driven ball up so that it slows down and becomes easier to defend.

A well-executed soft-block is performed by jumping and placing one's hands above the net with no penetration into the opponent's court and with the palms up and fingers pointing backward. Blocking is also classified according to the number of players involved.

Thus, one may speak of single or solo , double, or triple block. Successful blocking does not always result in a "roof" and many times does not even touch the ball. While it's obvious that a block was a success when the attacker is roofed, a block that consistently forces the attacker away from his or her 'power' or preferred attack into a more easily controlled shot by the defense is also a highly successful block.

At the same time, the block position influences the positions where other defenders place themselves while opponent hitters are spiking. Digging is the ability to prevent the ball from touching one's court after a spike or attack, particularly a ball that is nearly touching the ground. It is especially important while digging for players to stay on their toes; several players choose to employ a split step to make sure they're ready to move in any direction.

Some specific techniques are more common in digging than in passing. A player may sometimes perform a "dive", i. When the player also slides his or her hand under a ball that is almost touching the court, this is called a "pancake". The pancake is frequently used in indoor volleyball, but rarely if ever in beach volleyball because the uneven and yielding nature of the sand court limits the chances that the ball will make a good, clean contact with the hand.

When used correctly, it is one of the more spectacular defensive volleyball plays. Sometimes a player may also be forced to drop his or her body quickly to the floor to save the ball. In this situation, the player makes use of a specific rolling technique to minimize the chances of injuries. Volleyball is essentially a game of transition from one of the above skills to the next, with choreographed team movement between plays on the ball.

These team movements are determined by the teams chosen serve receive system, offensive system, coverage system, and defensive system. The serve-receive system is the formation used by the receiving team to attempt to pass the ball to the designated setter.

Systems can consist of 5 receivers, 4 receivers, 3 receivers, and in some cases 2 receivers. The most popular formation at higher levels is a 3 receiver formation consisting of two left sides and a libero receiving every rotation. This allows middles and right sides to become more specialized at hitting and blocking. Offensive systems are the formations used by the offense to attempt to ground the ball into the opposing court or otherwise score points.

Formations often include designated player positions with skill specialization see Player specialization , below. Popular formations include the , , and systems see Formations , below. There are also several different attacking schemes teams can use to keep the opposing defense off balance.

Coverage systems are the formations used by the offense to protect their court in the case of a blocked attack. Executed by the 5 offensive players not directly attacking the ball, players move to assigned positions around the attacker to dig up any ball that deflects off the block back into their own court.

Popular formations include the system and the system. In lieu of a system, some teams just use a random coverage with the players nearest the hitter. Defensive systems are the formations used by the defense to protect against the ball being grounded into their court by the opposing team.

The system will outline which players are responsible for which areas of the court depending on where the opposing team is attacking from.

There are also several different blocking schemes teams can employ to disrupt the opposing teams offense. When one player is ready to serve, some teams will line up their other five players in a screen to obscure the view of the receiving team. This action is only illegal if the server makes use of the screen, so the call is made at the referee's discretion as to the impact the screen made on the receiving team's ability to pass the ball. The most common style of screening involves a W formation designed to take up as much horizontal space as possible.

Coaching for volleyball can be classified under two main categories: The objective of match coaching is to win a match by managing a team's strategy. Developmental coaching emphasizes player development through the reinforcement of basic skills during exercises known as " drills. A coach will construct drills that simulate match situations thereby encouraging speed of movement, anticipation, timing, communication, and team-work. At the various stages of a player's career, a coach will tailor drills to meet the strategic requirements of the team.

The American Volleyball Coaches Association is the largest organization in the world dedicated exclusively to volleyball coaching. There are 5 positions filled on every volleyball team at the elite level.

Each of these positions plays a specific, key role in winning a volleyball match. At some levels where substitutions are unlimited, teams will make use of a Defensive Specialist in place of or in addition to a Libero. This position does not have unique rules like the libero position, instead, these players are used to substitute out a poor back row defender using regular substitution rules.

A defensive specialist is often used if you have a particularly poor back court defender in right side or left side, but your team is already using a libero to take out your middles. Most often, the situation involves a team using a right side player with a big block who must be subbed out in the back row because they aren't able to effectively play back court defense.

Similarly, teams might use a Serving Specialist to sub out a poor server. The three standard volleyball formations are known as "4—2", "6—2" and "5—1", which refers to the number of hitters and setters respectively. The 4—2 formation has four hitters and two setters. The setters usually set from the middle front or right front position.

The team will therefore have two front-row attackers at all times. In the international 4—2, the setters set from the right front position. The international 4—2 translates more easily into other forms of offense.

The setters line up opposite each other in the rotation. The typical lineup has two outside hitters. By aligning like positions opposite themselves in the rotation, there will always be one of each position in the front and back rows. After service, the players in the front row move into their assigned positions, so that the setter is always in middle front.

Alternatively, the setter moves into the right front and has both a middle and an outside attacker; the disadvantage here lies in the lack of an offside hitter, allowing one of the other team's blockers to "cheat in" on a middle block. The clear disadvantage to this offensive formation is that there are only two attackers, leaving a team with fewer offensive weapons. Another aspect is to see the setter as an attacking force, albeit a weakened force, because when the setter is in the front court they are able to 'tip' or 'dump', so when the ball is close to the net on the second touch, the setter may opt to hit the ball over with one hand.

This means that the blocker who would otherwise not have to block the setter is engaged and may allow one of the hitters to have an easier attack. In the 6—2 formation, a player always comes forward from the back row to set. The three front row players are all in attacking positions. Thus, all six players act as hitters at one time or another, while two can act as setters. So the 6—2 formation is actually a 4—2 system, but the back-row setter penetrates to set.

The 6—2 lineup thus requires two setters, who line up opposite to each other in the rotation. In addition to the setters, a typical lineup will have two middle hitters and two outside hitters. After service, the players in the front row move into their assigned positions. The advantage of the 6—2 is that there are always three front-row hitters available, maximizing the offensive possibilities. However, not only does the 6—2 require a team to possess two people capable of performing the highly specialized role of setter, it also requires both of those players to be effective offensive hitters when not in the setter position.

At the international level, only the Cuban National Women's Team employs this kind of formation. It is also used by NCAA teams in Division III men's play and women's play in all divisions, partially due to the variant rules used which allow more substitutions per set than the 6 allowed in the standard rules—12 in matches involving two Division III men's teams [30] and 15 for all women's play.

The 5—1 formation has only one player who assumes setting responsibilities regardless of his or her position in the rotation. The team will therefore have three front-row attackers when the setter is in the back row, and only two when the setter is in the front row, for a total of five possible attackers.

The player opposite the setter in a 5—1 rotation is called the opposite hitter. In general, opposite hitters do not pass; they stand behind their teammates when the opponent is serving. The opposite hitter may be used as a third attack option back-row attack when the setter is in the front row: Normally the opposite hitter is the most technically skilled hitter of the team.

Back-row attacks generally come from the back-right position, known as zone 1, but are increasingly performed from back-center in high-level play. The big advantage of this system is that the setter always has 3 hitters to vary sets with. If the setter does this well, the opponent's middle blocker may not have enough time to block with the outside blocker, increasing the chance for the attacking team to make a point.

There is another advantage, the same as that of a 4—2 formation: This too can confuse the opponent's blocking players: A good setter knows this and thus won't only jump to dump or to set for a quick hit, but when setting outside as well to confuse the opponent.