Horse racing

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Pony racing on the Irish coast. The Quarter Horse has much larger hind limb muscles than the Arabian, which make it less suitable for endurance racing. When Quarter Horse racing began, it was very expensive to lay a full mile of track so it was agreed that a straight track of four hundred meters, or one quarter of a mile, would be laid instead. There is less jockeying for position, as turns are rare, and many races end with several contestants grouped together at the wire.

The track surface is similar to that of Thoroughbred racing and usually consists of dirt. In addition to the three main racing breeds above and their crosses, horse racing may be conducted using various other breeds: Muscles are bundles of contractile fibers that are attached to bones by tendons.

These bundles have different types of fibers within them, and horses have adapted over the years to produce different amounts of these fibers. Type II-b fibers are fast twitch fibers. These fibers allow muscles to contract quickly, resulting in a great deal of power and speed. Type I fibers are slow-twitch fibers. They allow muscles to work for longer periods of time resulting in greater endurance. Type II-a fibers are intermediate, representing a balance between the fast-twitch fibers and the slow-twitch fibers.

They allow the muscles to generate both speed and endurance. Type I muscle fibers are adapted for aerobic exercise and rely on the presence of oxygen.

Type II muscles are needed for anaerobic exercise because they can function in the absence of oxygen. This type of fiber allows them to propel themselves forward at great speeds and maintain it for an extended distance. The conditioning program for the different horses varies depending on the race length. Genetics, training, age, and skeletal soundness are all factors that contribute to a horse's performance.

A horse's fitness plan must be coordinated properly in order to prevent injury or lameness. If these are to occur, they may negatively affect a horse's willingness to learn.

Because the skeletal system does not reach full maturity until the horse is at least four years of age, young racehorses often suffer injuries. In the United States, Thoroughbred flat races are run on surfaces of either dirt, synthetic or turf.

Other tracks offer Quarter Horse racing and Standardbred racing, on combinations of these three types of racing surfaces. Racing of other breeds, such as Arabian horse racing, is found on a limited basis. American Thoroughbred races are run at a wide variety of distances, most commonly from 5 to 12 furlongs 0.

The South Westbury section is still known as Salisbury. The first record of quarter mile length races dated back to in Henrico County , Virginia.

Each race consisted of only two horses, and they raced down the village streets and lanes. The Quarter Horse received its name from the length of the race. The American Stud Book was started in , prompting the beginning of organized horse racing in the United States.

There were tracks operating in the United States by ; and in , the American Jockey Club was formed. The Pleasanton Fairgrounds Racetrack at the Alameda County Fairgrounds is the oldest remaining horse racing track in America, [32] dating back to , when it was founded by the sons of the Spaniard Don Agustin Bernal.

Belmont Park is located at the western edge of the Hempstead Plains. Its mile-and-a-half main track is the largest dirt Thoroughbred race course in the world, and it has the sport's largest grandstand. One of the latest major horse track opened in the United States was the Meadowlands Racetrack , opened in for Thoroughbred racing. It is the home of the Meadowlands Cup. Other more recently opened tracks include Remington Park , Oklahoma City , opened in , and Lone Star Park in the Dallas—Fort Worth Metroplex , opened in ; the latter track hosted the prestigious Breeders' Cup series of races in The Hall of Fame honors remarkable horses, jockeys , owners, and trainers.

They are all held early in the year, throughout May and the beginning of June. In recent years the Breeders' Cup races, run at the end of the year, have challenged the Triple Crown events as determiners of the three-year-old champion. The Breeders' Cup is normally held at a different track every year; however, the and editions were both held at Churchill Downs, and the , and races were held at Santa Anita Park.

Keeneland , in Lexington, Kentucky, hosted the Breeders' Cup. The corresponding Standardbred event is the Breeders Crown. American betting on horse racing is sanctioned and regulated by the state where the race is located. A takeout, or "take", is removed from each betting pool and distributed according to state law, among the state, race track and horsemen. A variety of factors affect takeout, namely location and the type of wager that is placed.

Advanced Deposit Wagering is a form of gambling on the outcome of horse races in which the bettor must fund his or her account before being allowed to place bets. ADW is often conducted online or by phone. In contrast to ADW, credit shops allow wagers without advance funding; accounts are settled at month-end. Racetrack owners, horse trainers and state governments sometimes receive a cut of ADW revenues.

The most famous horse from Canada is generally considered to be Northern Dancer , who after winning the Kentucky Derby , Preakness and Queen's Plate in went on to become the most successful Thoroughbred sire of the twentieth century; his two-minute-flat Derby was the fastest on record until Secretariat in The only challenger to his title of greatest Canadian horse would be his son Nijinsky II , who is the last horse to win the English Triple Crown.

It is the only race track in North America which stages Thoroughbred and Standardbred harness meetings on the same day. There are 15 racecourses in the Czech Republic, most notably Pardubice Racecourse, where the country's most famous race, the Velka Pardubicka steeplechase , has been run since The Czech horse racing season usually starts at the beginning of April and ends some time in November.

Racing takes place mostly at weekends and there is usually one meeting on a Saturday and one on Sunday. France has a major horse racing industry. Besides Longchamp, France's other premier flat racecourses include Chantilly and Deauville.

There is also a smaller but nevertheless important jumps racing sector, with Auteil Racecourse being the most well known. The sport's governing body is France Galop. Horse racing in Great Britain is predominantly thoroughbred flat and jumps racing.

It was in Great Britain in the 17th to 19th centuries that many of the sport's rules and regulations were established. The name " Derby " has since become synonymous with great races all over the world, and as such has been borrowed many times in races abroad. The Grand National is the most prominent race in British culture , watched by many people who do not normally watch or bet on horse racing at other times of the year. The sport is regulated by the British Horseracing Authority.

Despite having an ancient tradition with well-documented history, all racetracks in Greece have ceased operation due to the Greek government-debt crisis. Hungary has a long-standing horse racing tradition. The first horse racing in Pest was noted June 6, Foremost of these is Kincsem , foaled in and the most successful Thoroughbred race horse ever, having won 54 races in 54 starts. The country also produced Overdose , a horse who won his first 12 races, including group races in Germany and Italy , and finished fourth in the King's Stand Stakes at Royal Ascot.

Ireland has a rich history of horse racing; point to pointing originated there, and even today, jump racing is more popular than racing on the flat. As a result, every year Irish horse racing fans travel in huge numbers to the highlight event of the National Hunt calendar, the Cheltenham Festival , and in recent years Irish owned or bred horses have dominated the event.

The world's largest Thoroughbred stud farm, Coolmore Stud , has its main site there in addition to major operations in the U. In recent years, Irish bred and trained horses have enjoyed considerable success in major races worldwide. Various horses achieved victory in one or more of the British Guineas , The Derby and the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe , considered the three most prestigious races in Europe.

In the six runnings of the Epsom Derby between and , Irish horses filled 20 of the first 30 placings, winning the race 5 times. Historically, Italy has been one of the leading European horse racing nations, albeit some respects behind Great Britain, Ireland and France in size and prestige. The late Italian horse breeder Federico Tesio was particularly notable. In recent years, however, the sport in the country has suffered a major funding crisis, culminating in its expulsion from the European Pattern.

In Wassenaar in the Hague there is a grass course at Duindigt. The industry was severely limited during the Communist era, when gambling, the major source of funding, was made illegal. Horse racing in Australia was founded during the early years of settlement and the industry has grown to be among the top three leading Thoroughbred racing nations of the world.

In country racing, records indicate that Goulburn commenced racing in In Australia, the most famous racehorse was Phar Lap bred in New Zealand , who raced from to Phar Lap carried 9 st 12 lb In — the mare Makybe Diva bred in Great Britain became the only racehorse to ever win the Melbourne Cup three times, let alone in consecutive years. In harness racing , Cane Smoke had wins, including 34 in a single season, Paleface Adios became a household name during the s, while Cardigan Bay , a pacing horse from New Zealand, enjoyed great success at the highest levels of American harness racing in the s.

More recently, Blacks A Fake has won four Inter Dominion Championships, making him the only horse to complete this feat in Australasia's premier harness race. In all endurance events there are rigorous vet checks, conducted before, during and after the competition, in which the horses' welfare is of the utmost concern.

Racing is a long-established sport in New Zealand , stretching back to colonial times. Horse racing is a significant part of the New Zealand economy which in generated 1. More than 40, people were involved in some capacity in the New Zealand racing industry in In , more than one million people attended race meetings in New Zealand.

Racecourses are situated in 59 locations throughout New Zealand. During the —09 racing season 19 New Zealand bred horses won 22 Group One races around the world. The most famous of these is probably Cardigan Bay. The Champ de Mars is situated on a prestigious avenue in Port Louis , the capital city and is the oldest racecourse in the southern hemisphere. The Mauritius Turf Club is the third oldest active turf club in the world. Undeniably, racing is one of the most popular sports in Mauritius now attracting regular crowds of 20, people or more to the only racecourse of the island.

The easiest way to learn the wagering options is to just get started for small stakes at one of the sites listed earlier on this page. Having launched in , Toto is a rather new form of legal betting in Japan. Since the early s we have had four forms of legal sports gambling. These are called public sports and specifically are horse racing, powerboat racing, motorcycle racing and keirin.

As there is a lot of information about these on the internet already, I will only cover them each briefly while providing links that can be used to learn more.

Japan has 4 legal forms of sports betting — horse racing, powerboats, speedway and keirin. Horse racing is very popular in Japan. We have 24 Grade I G1 races per year and over 21, total races. There are many ways to bet these races including winner, place, quinella, bracket quinella, quinella place, trip, exacta, bracket exacta, trifecta, and pick 5.

Foreigners can find comprehensive information at www. This is high speed boat racing with races lasting only a couple of minutes. It is extremely well regulated but also has superstar status associated with it. In addition to being competitive, some female racers are used heavily in the marketing. In Japanese language only, this can be bet online with www. Keirin is a sport with an interesting history some of which is covered in Wikipedia: What is missing is the fact this sport was created in Japan in for the purpose of creating a new form of gambling.

Perhaps what no one could have imagined at the time is by it became part of the Summer Olympics. While Keirin is now an international sport, Japan remains where it is the most popular due to our betting market. We have 47 velodromes each with pari-mutuel betting. It is also possible to bet online at www. If there is no winner the prize pool accumulates until a large jackpot is won. With this sport, almost all the material is in Japanese. There is however a Keirin Betting Guide in English.

While this is the way it is officially bet, there is also a large illegal betting market involving bookies. During the s the bookies had corrupted the sport. Today match fixing allegations are rare. All potential race participants now stay in a dorm just before and until the conclusion of the race. This means by the time the bookies know which result would be most profitable for them, the participants are already in dorms without outside contact.

Due to its heavy regulation, auto race has become very popular for tote betting. Netbank and Standard Bank account holders can even bet the tote online.

Technically speaking this article has already covered all forms of legal gambling in Japan. This is only because Takarakuji lotteries, which are massively popular here, are considered an amusement as opposed to gambling. Likewise, anyone including children can purchase tickets. Pachinko is also considered an amusement. This is why balls are redeemed for tokens.

The tokens are then taken around the corner to the redemption centre where they are redeemed for cash or prizes.